The main cause for male infertility is the abnormal sperm productions or functions. A Semen Analysis is recommended by an infertility specialist as an initial step for infertility treatment. This involves testing the quality and quantity of the sperm produced. The parameters used to assess a semen sample are
- Concentration (sperm count per ml of semen)- low sperm count or oligospermia is the main cause. Complete lack of sperm is very rare.
- Morphology (shape of sperm)- in case of abnormal sperm shape it may not be able to access or penetrate the egg
Motility percentage of sperm actively swimming
Low sperm count could be caused by one or more of the following causes
- Structural abnormalities – sperm is produced normally in the testes but an obstruction in the ejaculation tract may block the sperm.
- Hormonal or endocrinal disorders
- Undescended testicles
- Testicular injuries/trauma
- Chromosomal/genetic abnormalities
- Infections such as mumps virus
- Environmental and lifestyle factors