In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) or test tube baby procedure comprises of a step of procedures used to treat fertility problems. It is the most effective form of assisted reproductive technology used to assist infertile couples in the conception of a baby. The process involves joining the womens egg and the mans sperm outside the body (in vitro) in a laboratory dish.
IVF Treatment is performed in older women or women with defects in fallopian tube or endometriosis. It can also be used to treat male fertility problems or with unexplained infertility causes.
The process of in vitro fertilization is as follows
Fertility drugs are given to the women to stimulate egg production.
The mature eggs are retrieved from the womens body using a minor surgery. Donor eggs may be used if a woman cannot produce any eggs.
The best quality eggs are combined with the mans sperm in an environmentally controlled chamber. Fertilization takes place within a few hours. If the chances of fertilization are low then techniques like ICSI are used wherein a single sperm is injected into the egg.
Embryo formation by repeated cell division of the fertilized egg.
The embryo is then transferred into the womb within 3-5 days of fertilization.
Risks are associated with specific steps of the IVF cycle which are listed below
Multiple births in cases where more than one embryo is implanted
Low birth weight and premature delivery
Ovaries may become hyperstimulated (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome) by the use of fertility drugs used to stimulate ovulation.
Complications such as bleeding, infection, reaction to anesthesia etc during egg retrieval