Surrogacy is a highly controversial and tricky legal process as it uses a surrogate mother to deliver a baby. Surrogacy is a process in which another female carries and deliver a baby for the couple needed child but not able to do so. There are four categories of surrogacy
- Traditional: in this process, a female gets artificially inseminated with the male’s sperm and then carries, deliver the baby for the needed couple. A traditional surrogate is an infant biological mother as it was her egg that was fertilized by the male’s sperm. In this case, donor sperm can also be used. It is also known as partial or straight surrogacy. The techniques of IVF and IUI have been used in the process.
- Gestational surrogacy: it is also known as full or host surrogacy. In this kind of surrogacy, eggs from the mother and sperm from the father are taken and fertilized in artificial condition then inserted it into the uterus of a gestational surrogate. A gestational surrogate does not have any kind of genetic links with the child as her egg was not used for fertilization. In this case, a gestational surrogate is known as the “birth mother” as biological mother is still the female whose egg is used for fertilization.
- Commercial surrogacy: In this the surrogate mother is given ample compensation by the intended parents for carrying their child in her uterus.Commercial surrogacy is legalised in India.
- Altruistic Surrogacy: no compensation or financial help is given for the surrogate woman who carries the child in her uterus for the intended parents.
Surrogacy is recommended only if a female has certain medical condition that makes it not possible or dangerous to get pregnant and give birth. These certain conditions include
- Recurrent pregnancy loss
- Malformation or absence of the womb
- Failure of repeated IVF implantation
Surrogacy also makes possible parenthood to the couple who might not able to adopt a child. Although. It is a risky process. The risks associates with the surrogacy are
- Premature deliveries
- Ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome
- Birth defects
- The level of success in surrogacy is completely depends on certain factors such as maternal age, infertility causes, and male and female reproductive history.
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